Training in Neurostimulation


N3 has trained graduate students, MDs, and other clinical researchers in the application of non-invasive neurostimulation techniques. Currently training is offered on an ad-hoc basis. Training for new projects can be managed as a study is beginning.

N3 has dedicated staff to provide appropriate training to researchers new to neurostimulation. Pease contact us and arrangements for training can be made. 

TMS Training

Typical TMS training proceeds as follows:

  • A 30-minute presentation on the theoretical background of neurostimulation
  • Shadowing/observation for 2 sessions of a relevant protocol
  • At least 2 hands-on practice sessions
  • At least 1 supervised sessions where trainee acts as an independent operator (supervisor as assistant)

A certificate will be provided once N3 scientists confirm that the trainee is capable of performing TMS independently. Training is suite-specific - each lab contains different equipment which trainees must be familiar with before collecting study data. Additional practice sessions may be required if the protocol involves EMG recordings, mapping, or other advanced arrangements.

tDCS Training

  • 30 minutes tDCS theory/safety presentation
  • At least 1 hands-on practice sessions
  • At least 1 supervised session where trainee acts independently

A certificate will be provided once N3 scientists confirm trainee is capable of performing tDCS independently.


Kirton, A. and Gilbert, D. L. (ed.) (2016).  Pediatric Brain Stimulation: Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain.

This book provides a good overview for a variety of brain stimulation techniques with considerations for pediatrics. It introduces various brain stimulation techniques including TMS, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), and deep-brain stimulation (DBS). 

Huang, Y. Z., Edwards, M. J., Rounis, E., Bhatia, K. P., & Rothwell, J. C. (2005). Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex. Neuron45(2), 201-206.

This paper introduced the theta-burst pattern of TMS, which is based on observations of stimulus-induced plasticity in rat hippocampal slices. The authors observe that applying various theta-burst patterns to the motor cortex can change excitability with effects lasting up to 1 hour following stimulation.